The possible reason is that from changing the design symmetric to asymmetric, we are increasing the variation in edges. However, when the circumference of the helix is same as that of the order of the wavelength, then the antenna is operating in axial mode. In order to implement the new standards it is essential to have an antenna that is low profile, supports various frequencies and provides good transmission and reception signals. Right hand circular polarized wave and Left hand circular polarized wave. The port impedance was j31 ohms for 2.

The proposed antenna has compact structure and is designed on FR4 substrate. Fabrication is a very complex and time consuming task where problems are faced and dealt constantly. All of the three employ the concept of fractal geometry is designing compact antennas with better performance than Microstrip Patch antennas MPAs. In military applications navigational antennas are required for many applications such as surveillance, beam steering, beam forming, radar, tracking etc. Discussion and Conclusions 31 Appendix 33 References 35 Acknowledgement 36 5.

Tanmoy Sarkar et al. The dimensions of the antenna are The designed antenna is now working well for the frequency of 5. The proposed antenna design can be used for many defense and civilian applications. Values of dimensions are given in table 4. The exact structure of regular fractals is repeated within each small fraction of the whole, i. By array configuration, lower power handling capacity and lower gain can be overcome.

The proposed antenna covers a frequency range of 2 to 6 GHz and obtains gain of 4dB. It is expressed in dBi. Mathematically input impedance can be represented as: Fractal antenna thesis tools were initially developed for military users but with the advent of wireless communication systems it has been fractal antenna thesis in civil as well.

These are the conduction and dielectric losses. The main advantage of this is that the feed can be engraved on the same substrate and with the same material. Second iteration for Minkowski Island 4 h b a The dimension of the design is 9. For a broad band antenna, bandwidth can be described fractal antenna thesis the ratio of the upper frequency and the lower frequency, whereas for narrowband antenna bandwidth is the percentage of difference between the upper and the lower frequency from the center frequency.

fractal antenna thesis

Microstrip patch antennas are light in weight because of absence of machined parts and are simpler, compact and easy to manufacture with printed circuit technology. He was the one I was continuously sharing my ideas with and receiving back the valuable reflections. Fractal antenna thesis examples of fractal geometries in nature can be mountains, coastlines etc.

Mobile phones, computers, laptops have GPS functionality. In military applications navigational antennas fractal antenna thesis required for many applications such as surveillance, beam steering, beam forming, radar, tracking etc.

The exposed fractal antenna thesis are etched out using solution of ferric chloride FeCl3. In this antenna a combination of fractal geometry and meandered line is used to achieve multiband characteristics. The proposed antenna operates at MHz, It also includes the hardware implementation. This is the first iteration version and is called the generator.

### FRACTAL ANTENNA FOR AEROSPACE NAVIGATION

The feed of the antenna is located at the origin. According to cosmologists, the matter is spread uniformly across space. It has powerful drawing capabilities to simply the antenna design.

Therefore space around the fractal antenna thesis is divided into three regions as shown in figure 1.

### Design and Analysis of Fractal antennas – ethesis

This mode gives high bandwidth and better gain when compared to normal mode of operation. To understand the concept if radiation pattern, let us consider a directional fractal antenna thesis.

These lobes are unrelated by various nulls.

See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. The antenna provides good gain and radiation properties.

The possible reason of being compact in size is its more edges than a normal rectangular shape, as edges are open circuit and are responsible for frequency response.

This affects in designing a complex fractal antenna thesis antenna with fractal shapes on its patch. The antenna is quiet suitable for Ultra Wideband wireless communication systems.

However designing such fractal antenna thesis antenna is a difficult task because various parameters such as space, volume fractal antenna thesis presence of other objects play an important role. The wideband mechanism is achieved by studying the behavior of current on the patch. By using self similar property a number of copies can be found within the whole geometry.